Sandwich panel or panel is a type of construction materials to cover walls and ceilings of all building types. A combination of metal sheets and a sandwiched insulation materials between two sheets were used to make panel. Sandwich panel is produced in two types of wall and ceiling that wall panel itself is divided into simple and hidden screw, and roof panel is produced in types of simple, tongue and groove joint, screw, lock, and ceramic designs. The used materials in panel can be galvanized, aluminum, and Aluzinc. The difference in sandwich panels is in the used insulation for their production that is stated later.
Types of sandwich panels
Polyurethane sandwich panel
Polyurethane is used in this type of sandwich panels that is produced in two types. The first type is PIR produced from the combination of polyol and isocyanurate. The second type is PUR produced from polyol and isocyanate. Using catalyst is essential in both types to accelerate combination. B141 gas was used to adjust foam. The difference of these two type is in PIR being fire-proofing. Being heat and cold insulation, noise insulation, moisture resistant, and light weight are the characteristics of this sandwich panel.
Polyurethane sandwich panel
Polystyrene foam (ionolite) is used to insulate this type of panels. Its noise and thermal insulation is lower than polyurethane, but it is lighter and has lower price.
Rock wool sandwich panels
The insulator of this type of sandwich panels is rock wool that being fire-proof is the most important characteristics of this type. It must be noted that the anti-fire level of this type is higher than the PIR polyurethane panel.
Technical characteristics of sandwich panel
The used sheet has 0.5-0.7 mm thickness, and the used insulator density in it is 40±2, 15-25, and 100 kg/m3 for polyurethane, polystyrene, and rock wool panel, respectively. The insulator thickness is 20-150, 50-200, and 50, 75, and 100 mm for polyurethane, polystyrene, and rock wool sandwich panels, respectively. Polyurethane, polystyrene, and rock wool sandwich panels are produced with useful width of 1, 0.95, and 0.97m respectively, and there is no limitation for their length.
Application of sandwich panel
Sandwich panels can be used to construct all types of warehouses, gyms, behind of buildings, spatial structure, refrigerators, factory, conex, villa, etc.
Installation of sandwich panels
Since the factors of thermal and noise insulation, moisture-resistance, fire-proof, and beauty are the important characteristics to make structures by sandwich panels, the following cases must be considered in their installation:
– Panel is connected to the building and all connection points to each other in corners by flashing with 1-2mm thickness.
– Panels are sealed by polyurethane adhesive.
– The distance between columns, panels’ heights, etc. must be mentioned to reduce the outlaying parts of panels.
– The specific washer bolts must be used to install panels. In addition, bolts heights and steps must be mentioned.
How to reduce sandwich panels costs
There are various methods to reduce panels’ costs:
– using metal sheet just in one side instead of both sides.
– reducing thickness of metal sheet from 0.5 to 0.5mm.
– reducing the used steps in panel.
Advantages and disadvantage of sandwich panels
Sandwich panels have many advantages than the other types of materials that the most important ones are as following:
– Heat, cold, moisture, and noise insulator
– Resistant against earthquake
– Easy and quick installation
– Having light weight
– Antifungal and rot-proof
– Color varieties
However, panels themselves have some advantages and disadvantages that some of them are mentioned as following:
Advantages and disadvantages of polyurethane panel
– producing both continues and discontinues forms
– having high molecular bonds
– The insulation adhesion to the outer sheet is higher than other panels.
– There is no pore inside the insulation
– Its price is higher than the other panels
– There are many limitations to product in various thicknesses.
-its raw material is imported
Advantages and disadvantages of polystyrene sandwich panel
– Its price is lower than the other panels
– It is produced in an extensive range of density (15-25kg/m3)
– It can be made in different shapes.
– It is lower than the other panels.
– Its insulation is lower than the other panels
– It has high flammability.
Advantages and disadvantage of rock wool sandwich panel
– It is more fire-proof than other panels.
– Sheet is separated from insulator easier than other panels.
-it has lower life time
– Water penetrates inside it easier.